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讀寫困難(三)怎樣識別?

作者: 李淑嫻 |曾淑雯 最後更新: 25/04/2014

 

怎樣識別有讀寫困難的孩子?

有讀寫困難的兒童的口語表達往往比較文字表達及唸讀能力高。他們上課時表現不錯,但是卻不能認讀常見的字詞,誦讀文章的時候斷斷續續、錯漏百出,例如把「潔白」唸成「清白」;「毛衣」唸成「手服」,不能夠準確地把字形和字音連繫起來。

除此之外,他們的寫字速度也較一般兒童慢,像要搜索枯腸地把字的部件東一塊、西一塊地「裝嵌」起來,並出現加減筆劃或把部件左右倒轉的情況。通常家長已很盡心督導孩子複習,可是孩子的默書成績仍然很差。

家長及教師均要及早識別有特殊學習困難的孩子,以便為他們提供適切的輔導,前教育署(教育統籌局) 與香港大學和中文大學合作組成的研究小組,於2001年向全港小學派發了適用於小二至小四孩子的《香港小孩子特殊學習困難行為量表》。

該份量表共設65道題目,分為兩部分:語文部分和認知及其他部分。涵蓋孩子在閱讀、寫作及默書方面的表現;認知及其他部分則有關一般表現、數學、語言、記憶、專注力、列序能力、大小肌肉協調能力、空間及方向感、情緒及社交適應等。

 

量表評估  

量表須由熟悉孩子的教師填寫,根據對孩子日常觀察來決定各項行為的出現頻率,並以甄別題數識別有特殊學習困難的孩子。 

研究小組發現經鑑別為有讀寫困難和沒有讀寫困難的孩子,在所有題目類別中的得分均有顯著分別,其中以「寫字和默書」及「一般表現」兩項的分別最為顯著。總括而言,有讀寫困難的孩子具有以下特徵: 

  • 口語表達能力比文字表達能力佳
  • 即使常見的字詞也不能認讀
  • 誦讀文章時斷斷續續、錯漏百出
  • 即使有複習,默書成績仍很差
  • 抄寫速度慢,常漏字、加減筆劃或把部件左右倒轉
  • 記憶力弱,在背誦課文/乘數表有困難
  • 列序能力和方向感較弱
  • 組織能力較差
  • 專注能力一般較弱 
 

參考書目  

  • Badien, N. A. (1997). Dyslexia and the double-deficit hypothesis. Annais of Dyslexia, 47, 69-87.  
  • British Dyslexia Association. (1998). Achieving dyslexia friendly schools: Resource pack. Reading Authur.  
  • British Psychological Society, Working Party of the Division of Educational and Child Psychology. (1999). Dyslexia, literacy and psychological Assessment. Leicester: Author.  
  • Brooks, P., & Weeks, S. (1999). Individual styles in learning to spell: improving spelling in children with literacy difficulties and all children in mainstream schools (Research Brief No. 108). London: Department for Education and Employment.  
  • Canfield, J., & Wells, H. C. (1994). 100 ways to enhance self-concept in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  
  • Chan, C. K., & Siegel, L. S. (2001). Phonological processing in reading Chinese among normally achieving and poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 80, 23-43.  
  • Firman, C., Francica, C., & Greech, K. (2001). Paired reading and the dyslexic child-how effective? Dyslexia Review, 13, 15-18. 
  • Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1997). The case for early reading intervention. In B. A. Blachman (Ed.), Foundation of reading acquisition and dyslexia (pp. 243-264). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.  
  • Frith, U. (1999). Paradoxes in the definition of dyslexia. Dyslexia, 5, 192-214. 
  • Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2001). Helping teachers formulate sound test accommodation decisions for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practices, 16, 174-181. 
  • Gillingham, A., & Stillman, B. W. (1946). Remedial training for children with specific disability in reading, spelling and penmanship. Oxford, England: Authors.  
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  • Hulme, C. (1981). Reading retardation & multi-sensory teaching. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.  
  • International Dyslexia Association. (2004). Dyslexia basics: Retrieved February 26, 2004, from http://www.interdys.org/pdf/basics.pdf.  
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  • Meloy, L. L., Deville, C., & Frisbie, D. A. (2002). The effect of a read aloud accommodation on test scores of students wit hand without a learning disability in reading. Remedial & Special Education, 23, 248-253.  
  • Morris, R. D., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Lyon, G. R., Shankweiler, D. P., et al. (1998). Subtypes of reading disability: Variability around a phonological core. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 347-373.  
  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (2003). Thirty Years of Research: What we now know about how children learn to read: A synthesis of research on reading from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Retrieved May 19, 2003, from http://www.ksagroup.com/thecenter/  
  • Office for Standards in Education. (1999). Pupils with specific learning difficulties in mainstream schools. London: OFSTED publication Centre, Department of Education.  
  • Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-407.  
  • Sternberg, R., & Grigorenko, E. L. (1999). Our labeled children: What every parent and teacher needs to know about learning disabilities. Reading: Perseus Books.  
  • West, T. G. (1997). In the mind’s Eye: Visual thinkers, gifted people with dyslexia and other learning difficulties, computer images, and the ironies of creativity. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.  
  • Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1991). Naming speed and reading: The contribution of the cognitive neurosciences. Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 123-171.  
  • 謝錫金、林偉業、林裕康 (2003):《學會閱讀:世界各地的先進經驗和香港小孩子的表現研討會報告》。於2004年4月23日從以下網址提取: http://www.chineseedu.hku.hk/pirls/pirls_int_report.html.  

 

 

原載於
《教育心理學實用手冊(第二版)》III「特殊需要篇--讀寫困難」
(香港心理學會教育心理學部,2004)
註:本文應因家長對象之需要作出編訂。

原文出版日期:2007年1月15日 

 

作者簡介
李淑嫻
李淑嫻

曾任教育局教育心理學家。現職香港大學心理學系講師,及香港特殊學習困難研究小組成員。

曾淑雯
曾淑雯

現任教育局教育心理學家,及香港特殊學習困難研究小組成員。

關鍵字詞: 讀寫障礙 |讀寫困難 |特殊學習困難 |評估