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讀寫困難(四)可以預防的嗎?

作者: 李淑嫻 |曾淑雯 最後更新: 25/04/2014

 

讀寫困難是可以預防嗎?   

有學者指出,如果家長及老師在孩子入學初期忽視了孩子在閱讀方面的困難,這些孩子很快就會經歷重重的挫敗,且因未能夠透過閱讀來學習,導致整體學業成績下降 (Stanovich, 1986)。

在美國,大約有40%的孩子在閱讀上遭遇困難,但是其中只有大約5-8%是在生理上有讀寫困難的現象,需要特殊教育來發展閱讀的能力 (Sternberg & Grigorenko, 1999)。英國全國兒童健康及人類發展局(NICHD, 2003) 強調為兒童及早提供適當而直接的閱讀教學 (appropriate early direct instructions),是應付閱讀困難的最佳配方。研究發現,直接而有系統地在小一時教導孩子進行語音訓練(phonics),如教兒童如何唸出字音,比較個別輔導課程更有效減少閱讀困難的出現。

另一方面,直接且有系統地教授語音和拼法的關連 (sound-spelling correspondence),也比較兒童只靠看趣味故事來學文字有效得多 (Foorman, Francis, Shaywitz, & Fletcher, 1997)。在加拿大一個校區進行的追蹤也發現,在學前階段接受語音意識訓練(phonological awareness training) 的兒童,日後被鑑別為有讀寫困難的比率,比較沒有接受訓練的組別顯著地降低(Lesaux & Siegel, 2003)。

 

香港的閱讀教學情況

近日一項以小四孩子對象的全球孩子閱讀能力進展研究顯示,香港孩子入讀小一時的基本語文能力在參與研究的35個地區中,各方面皆位列全球之首;可是到了小四,國際排名僅及第14位(謝錫金等,2003)。  

一般來說,九歲以前的兒童需要先學會閱讀,認識一定的詞彙及掌握閱讀的方法;而在十歲至十三歲間,他們開始能夠透過閱讀來學習,吸收大量的知識。研究告訴我們,香港在改善閱讀教學方面,尚有很大的空間。  

 

參考書目  

  • Badien, N. A. (1997). Dyslexia and the double-deficit hypothesis. Annais of Dyslexia, 47, 69-87.  
  • British Dyslexia Association. (1998). Achieving dyslexia friendly schools: Resource pack. Reading Authur.  
  • British Psychological Society, Working Party of the Division of Educational and Child Psychology. (1999). Dyslexia, literacy and psychological Assessment. Leicester: Author.  
  • Brooks, P., & Weeks, S. (1999). Individual styles in learning to spell: improving spelling in children with literacy difficulties and all children in mainstream schools (Research Brief No. 108). London: Department for Education and Employment.  
  • Canfield, J., & Wells, H. C. (1994). 100 ways to enhance self-concept in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  
  • Chan, C. K., & Siegel, L. S. (2001). Phonological processing in reading Chinese among normally achieving and poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 80, 23-43.  
  • Firman, C., Francica, C., & Greech, K. (2001). Paired reading and the dyslexic child-how effective? Dyslexia Review, 13, 15-18. 
  • Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1997). The case for early reading intervention. In B. A. Blachman (Ed.), Foundation of reading acquisition and dyslexia (pp. 243-264). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.  
  • Frith, U. (1999). Paradoxes in the definition of dyslexia. Dyslexia, 5, 192-214. 
  • Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2001). Helping teachers formulate sound test accommodation decisions for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practices, 16, 174-181. 
  • Gillingham, A., & Stillman, B. W. (1946). Remedial training for children with specific disability in reading, spelling and penmanship. Oxford, England: Authors.  
  • Ho, C. S. H., Chan, D. W., Tsang, S. M., & Lee, S. H. (2002). The Cognitive Profile and Multiple-deficit Hypothesis in Chinese Development Dyslexia. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 38, 543-553.  
  • Hulme, C. (1981). Reading retardation & multi-sensory teaching. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.  
  • International Dyslexia Association. (2004). Dyslexia basics: Retrieved February 26, 2004, from http://www.interdys.org/pdf/basics.pdf.  
  • Lesaux, N. K. & Siegel, L. S. (2003). Early identification and intervention for children at risk for reading difficulties. Developmental Psychology, 39, 1005-1019.  
  • Meloy, L. L., Deville, C., & Frisbie, D. A. (2002). The effect of a read aloud accommodation on test scores of students wit hand without a learning disability in reading. Remedial & Special Education, 23, 248-253.  
  • Morris, R. D., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Lyon, G. R., Shankweiler, D. P., et al. (1998). Subtypes of reading disability: Variability around a phonological core. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 347-373.  
  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (2003). Thirty Years of Research: What we now know about how children learn to read: A synthesis of research on reading from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Retrieved May 19, 2003, from http://www.ksagroup.com/thecenter/  
  • Office for Standards in Education. (1999). Pupils with specific learning difficulties in mainstream schools. London: OFSTED publication Centre, Department of Education.  
  • Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-407.  
  • Sternberg, R., & Grigorenko, E. L. (1999). Our labeled children: What every parent and teacher needs to know about learning disabilities. Reading: Perseus Books.  
  • West, T. G. (1997). In the mind’s Eye: Visual thinkers, gifted people with dyslexia and other learning difficulties, computer images, and the ironies of creativity. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.  
  • Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1991). Naming speed and reading: The contribution of the cognitive neurosciences. Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 123-171.  
  • 謝錫金、林偉業、林裕康 (2003):《學會閱讀:世界各地的先進經驗和香港小孩子的表現研討會報告》。於2004年4月23日從以下網址提取: http://www.chineseedu.hku.hk/pirls/pirls_int_report.html.  

 

讀寫困難(四)可以預防的嗎? 

原載於
《教育心理學實用手冊(第二版)》III「特殊需要篇--讀寫困難」
(香港心理學會教育心理學部,2004)
註:本文應因家長對象之需要作出編訂。

原文出版日期:2007年1月15日 

 

作者簡介
李淑嫻
李淑嫻

曾任教育局教育心理學家。現職香港大學心理學系講師,及香港特殊學習困難研究小組成員。

曾淑雯
曾淑雯

現任教育局教育心理學家,及香港特殊學習困難研究小組成員。

關鍵字詞: 讀寫障礙 |讀寫困難 |特殊學習困難 |及早識別