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讀寫困難(六)全校參與的重要

作者: 李淑嫻 |曾淑雯 最後更新: 25/04/2014

 

英國讀寫障礙協會(British Dyslexia Association, 1998) 則出版了一份名為的 “Achieving Dyslexia Friendly School” 的資源套,當中提及「全校參與」的支援模式應包括以下的元素:

  • 全校教職員達成共識
  • 全人發展
  • 不斷提升教師的專業知識
  • 訂立校本支援及評核孩子成績的政策
  • 加強家校合作

近年來,香港的教育統籌局致力各學校推廣以「全校參與」的模式來協助有特殊教育需要的孩子。2003年5月發出之學校通告,建議學校成立「孩子支援小組」,這項建議應有助落實以「全校參與」的模式協助有讀寫困難的孩子。

 

家庭與學校合作  

要有效地幫助有讀寫困難的孩子,需要學校、家長及孩子本身三方面的共同努力和互相配合。孩子、家長、學校的三角關係是互相影響的。

家長宜與學校定期檢討孩子的學習困難和需要,達成共識,對孩子有一致的要求。家長也可以定期參與學校有關的家長講座或分享會,或當義工,在教室內或課餘的時間協助有學習困難的孩子。使自己們能掌握有效的方法輔助子女。

 

總結

傳統的教學方式強調閱讀和背誦,這對有讀寫困難的孩子有一定的困難。提倡「多元智能論」的著名學者史滕伯格(Sternberg & Grigorenko, 1999) 指出,教育不應只強調記憶和分析的能力,還該注重創造和實用的能力。採用建基於多元智能的課程和教學方式,不但能夠照顧個別差異,而且能夠培養孩子將來在社會謀生所需要的各項能力。

家長及教師若能配合課程及教育改革,敢於嘗試多元的教學模式,例如鼓勵孩子以戲劇或繪畫的方式表現內容,並把學習內容應用到日常生活中,才能夠協助有學習困擾的孩子學得更好,加強他們的學習動機。

事實上,不少人士都能克服他們的讀寫困難,在不同行業獲得傑出的成就。願我們都能發掘孩子的才能,支持和鼓勵他們,使他們能夠跨越障礙,盡展所長。

  

參考書目  

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  • British Dyslexia Association. (1998). Achieving dyslexia friendly schools: Resource pack. Reading Authur.  
  • British Psychological Society, Working Party of the Division of Educational and Child Psychology. (1999). Dyslexia, literacy and psychological Assessment. Leicester: Author.  
  • Brooks, P., & Weeks, S. (1999). Individual styles in learning to spell: improving spelling in children with literacy difficulties and all children in mainstream schools (Research Brief No. 108). London: Department for Education and Employment.  
  • Canfield, J., & Wells, H. C. (1994). 100 ways to enhance self-concept in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.  
  • Chan, C. K., & Siegel, L. S. (2001). Phonological processing in reading Chinese among normally achieving and poor readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 80, 23-43.  
  • Firman, C., Francica, C., & Greech, K. (2001). Paired reading and the dyslexic child-how effective? Dyslexia Review, 13, 15-18. 
  • Foorman, B. R., Francis, D. J., Shaywitz, B. A., & Fletcher, J. M. (1997). The case for early reading intervention. In B. A. Blachman (Ed.), Foundation of reading acquisition and dyslexia (pp. 243-264). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.  
  • Frith, U. (1999). Paradoxes in the definition of dyslexia. Dyslexia, 5, 192-214. 
  • Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2001). Helping teachers formulate sound test accommodation decisions for students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practices, 16, 174-181. 
  • Gillingham, A., & Stillman, B. W. (1946). Remedial training for children with specific disability in reading, spelling and penmanship. Oxford, England: Authors.  
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  • International Dyslexia Association. (2004). Dyslexia basics: Retrieved February 26, 2004, from http://www.interdys.org/pdf/basics.pdf.  
  • Lesaux, N. K. & Siegel, L. S. (2003). Early identification and intervention for children at risk for reading difficulties. Developmental Psychology, 39, 1005-1019.  
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  • Morris, R. D., Stuebing, K. K., Fletcher, J. M., Shaywitz, S. E., Lyon, G. R., Shankweiler, D. P., et al. (1998). Subtypes of reading disability: Variability around a phonological core. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 347-373.  
  • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (2003). Thirty Years of Research: What we now know about how children learn to read: A synthesis of research on reading from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Retrieved May 19, 2003, from http://www.ksagroup.com/thecenter/  
  • Office for Standards in Education. (1999). Pupils with specific learning difficulties in mainstream schools. London: OFSTED publication Centre, Department of Education.  
  • Stanovich, K. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-407.  
  • Sternberg, R., & Grigorenko, E. L. (1999). Our labeled children: What every parent and teacher needs to know about learning disabilities. Reading: Perseus Books.  
  • West, T. G. (1997). In the mind’s Eye: Visual thinkers, gifted people with dyslexia and other learning difficulties, computer images, and the ironies of creativity. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.  
  • Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1991). Naming speed and reading: The contribution of the cognitive neurosciences. Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 123-171.  
  • 謝錫金、林偉業、林裕康 (2003):《學會閱讀:世界各地的先進經驗和香港小孩子的表現研討會報告》。於2004年4月23日從以下網址提取: http://www.chineseedu.hku.hk/pirls/pirls_int_report.html.  

 

讀寫困難(六)全校參與的重要 

原載於
《教育心理學實用手冊(第二版)》III「特殊需要篇--讀寫困難」
(香港心理學會教育心理學部,2004)
註:本文應因家長對象之需要作出編訂。

原文出版日期:2007年2月7日 

 

作者簡介
李淑嫻
李淑嫻

曾任教育局教育心理學家。現職香港大學心理學系講師,及香港特殊學習困難研究小組成員。

曾淑雯
曾淑雯

現任教育局教育心理學家,及香港特殊學習困難研究小組成員。

關鍵字詞: 讀寫障礙 |讀寫困難 |特殊學習困難 |家校合作